50 PIONEERS IN ALTERNATIVE HEALTH and MEDICINE | Part II | Pioneers 11-20
Part II • Pioneers 11-20
11. Samuel Hahnemann - Year: 1755-1843 - Fields: Homeopathy - Country: Germany – Samuel Hahnemann was a German physician, best known for creating the system of alternative medicine known as homeopathy. In 1781, Hahnemann was dissatisfied with the state of medicine and objected to practices like bloodletting. He claimed the medicine mostly did the patient more harm than good. After giving up his practice around 1784, Hahnemann researched the causes of medicine's alleged errors. He first used the term homeopathy in his essay Indications of the Homeopathic Employment of Medicines in Ordinary Practice, published in Hufeland's Journal in 1807. His researches led him to realize that the toxic effects of ingested substances are often broadly parallel to certain disease states. His deep research of historical cases of poisoning in the medical literature only strengthened his belief. He first published an article about the homeopathic approach in a German-language medical journal in 1796. Following a series of further essays, he published Organon of the Rational Art of Healing in 1812, the first systematic treatise containing all his detailed instructions on the subject.
12. Carl Rogers - Year: 1902-1987 - Fields: Psychology - Country: USA – Carl Rogers is the most influential person in the history of psychology and one of the founders of the humanistic approach (client-centered approach) to psychology, and widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research. He was honored for his pioneering research with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions by the American Psychological Association in 1956 for his versatility in various domains such as psychotherapy and counseling, education, organizations, and other group settings. Rogers believed that for a person to "grow", they need an environment that provides them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure), acceptance, and empathy. Without these, relationships and healthy personalities will not develop as they should, much like a tree will not grow without sunlight and water. Rogers believed that every person could achieve their goals, wishes, and desires in life. He professed each person was capable of reaching their potential, however a number of factors must be satisfied.
13. Linus Pauling - Year: 1901-1994 - Fields: Biochemistry - Country: USA - Pauling was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author and educator. He published more than 1200 papers and books. New Scientist called him one of the “20 Greatest Scientists of All Time”. Pauling was one of the founders of quantum chemistry and molecular biology. His contributions to the theory of the chemical bond include the first accurate scale of electro negativities of the elements. Pauling also worked on the structures of biological molecules, and showed the importance of the alpha helix and beta sheet in protein secondary structure. Pauling's approach combined methods and results from X-ray crystallography, molecular model building and quantum chemistry. His discoveries inspired the work of James Watson, disarmament, as well as orthomolecular medicine, megavitamin therapy and dietary supplements. For his scientific work, Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954. For his peace activism, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962. He is one of four individuals to have won more than one Nobel Prize.
14. Vincent Priessnitz - Year: 1799-1851 - Fields: Hydrotherapy - Country: Czech Republic – Vincent Priessnitz is generally considered the founder of modern hydrotherapy. He stressed remedies such as suitable food, air, exercise, rest and water, over conventional medicine. Over 1500 patients and 120 doctors arrived to study the new therapy in 1839. A visit by Arch-Duke Franz Carl in October 1845 was greeted with an address extolling the virtues of Priessnitz and his methods, signed by 124 guests. In 1846 Priessnitz was awarded a medal by the Emperor. Preissnitz's practice spread to the U.S. after becoming established in Europe, and several hydropathic medical schools and journals were created in the United States. Some practitioners performed scientific experiments on the effects of known water-cures, and they developed new methods and theories about the field. The usage of extreme temperature was toned down to account for differences in patients' age and condition.
15. Benedict Lust - Year:1872–1945 - Fields: Naturopathic - Country:Germany - Lust was one of the founders of naturopathic medicine movement in the 20th century. He was an instrumental force in the development of holistic methods. As a youth Lust overcame tuberculosis through natural treatments. He journeyed to New York City in 1896 to create a system of healing methods that included dietetics, herbs, massage, electrotherapy, sun baths and other elements of the German nature cure tradition. He graduated from the New York Homeopathic Medical College in 1901. He obtained his osteopathic degree in 1902 from the Universal College of Osteopathy in New York. By 1903, Lust had decided to name his therapies as “naturopathy”. That year he opened the American School of Naturopathy in New York City, the first naturopathic medical school in the world. He went on to establish health resorts in New Jersey and Florida which acted as the Winter Campus for the American School of Naturopathy until 2001. After opening an early health food store, he began publishing several German and English language magazines advocating hydrotherapy and natural cures. Lust also created the American Naturopathic Association, the first national professional organization of naturopathic physicians. In 1918 he published the Universal Naturopathic Encyclopedia for drugless therapy, and also published Nature’s Path magazine. Amongst all his accomplishments, he became known as the "Father of Naturopathy" in America.
16. Paul Bert - Year: 1833-1886 - Fields: Hyperbaric Chamber, Pressure - Country: France - In the 1800's, hyperbaric chambers became popular throughout Europe. The foundations of hyperbaric medicine were laid in 1872 by Paul Bert, an engineer, physician and scientist. Dr. Bert wrote about the physiological effects of air under increased and decreased atmospheric pressures. His classical work, La Pression barometrique, earned him the biennial prize of 20,000 francs from the Academy of Sciences in 1875. Central nervous system oxygen toxicity was first described in this publication and is sometimes referred to as the "Paul Bert effect”. He showed that oxygen was toxic to insects, arachnids, myriapods, molluscs, earthworms, fungi, germinating seeds, birds, and other animals. He wrote a very successful textbook with Raphael Blanchard Éléments de zoologie in 1885. In The Phrenological journal and science of health it was claimed that he held an atheistic belief. Bert’s study would go on to grow into the field of hyperbaric chambers.
17. JR Worsley - Year: 1923-2003 - Fields: Acupuncture - Country: United Kingdom -
Worsley is credited with bringing five element acupuncture, also known as traditional acupuncture to the West. Born in the UK, he opened the College of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture, which trained many of the leading five element practitioners practicing today. Worsley was also responsible for starting the Academy for Five Element Acupuncture (AFEA), currently in Gainesville, Florida. This college was non-profit and was led by Dorit Reznik for several years. In later years, Worsley had ties to the acupuncture training school in Boulder, Colorado. Today, his wife, Judy Worsley, carries on the five element acupuncture tradition, training and certifying practitioners in schools she endorses. J. R. Worsley's influence was widely cited by others within the five element tradition, including Peter Eckman, author of In the Footsteps of the Yellow Emperor.
18. John Ernest Sarno Jr. - Year: 1923-2017 - Fields: Pain - Country: USA - Sarno's most notable achievement is the development, diagnosis, and treatment of tension myoneural syndrome (TMS), which is currently not accepted by mainstream medicine. According to Sarno, TMS is a psychosomatic illness causing chronic back, neck, and limb pain which is not relieved by standard medical treatments. He includes other ailments, such as gastrointestinal problems, dermatological disorders and repetitive-strain injuries as TMS related. Sarno states that he has successfully treated over ten thousand patients by educating them on his beliefs of a psychological and emotional basis to their pain. Sarno's books describe two follow-up surveys of his TMS patients. The first in 1982 interviewed 177 patients selected randomly from those Sarno treated in the preceding three years. 76 percent stated that they were leading normal and effectively pain-free lives. A second follow-up study in 1987 restricted the population surveyed to those with herniated discs identified on CT-scans, and 88% of the 109 randomly selected patients stated that they were free of pain one to three years after TMS treatment. Notable patients of Sarno include Howard Stern, Tom Scharpling, Larry David, Anne Bancroft, Terry Zwigoff, John Stossel and Janette Barber. All six have praised Sarno and his work highly. In 2012, Sarno appeared before the U. S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, and Pensions as part of a hearing "Pain in America: Exploring Challenges to Relief".
19. Swami Vivekananda Year: 1863-1902 - Fields: Yoga - Country: India -
Modern Yoga in the West gained traction in the late 1890s, when Indian monks began transmitting their knowledge to the Western world. The influential Swami Vivekananda is often credited with introducing Yoga to the West. He first demonstrated Yoga postures at a World Fair in Chicago in the 1890's. This generated much interest and laid the grounds for the welcoming of many other Yogis and Swamis from India in the years that followed. He created a lasting impression of Yogic philosophies (Raja Yoga) in the mind of Western audience and also founded Yoga centers for training.
20. Robert Trias - Year: 1923-1989 - Fields: Martial Arts - Country: USA - Robert Trias, a U.S Navy veteran began teaching private lessons in Arizona in the mid-1950s. Trias is sometimes heralded as the father of American Karate, who helped spread the concepts behind martial arts. He is one of the first known American black belts, and developed his Shuri-ryu karate style, stemming from the practice of Okinawan martial arts. Trias was introduced to martial arts while serving in the United States Naval Reserve during World War II. While stationed on the Solomon Islands in the mid 1940’s, Trias met Tung Gee Hsiang, a Chinese missionary. Hsiang taught Trias Okinawan Shuri-Te Karate. In late 1945, Trias trained in his own backyard in Arizona - eventually opening the first public karate school run by a Caucasian in 1946. Trias is commonly credited for opening the first martial arts school in the United States. By 1948, Trias opened the United States Karate Association. It was deemed the first martial arts organization on the American mainland. With the help of his organization, Trias was able to host the first National Karate Tournament in the United States at the University of Chicago in 1963. Many of the rules he used for subsequent tournament competition are still used today, with slight modifications. In the 1950's judo became required training for personnel serving in the Air Force’s Strategic Air Com mand Division, all thanks to Robert Trias.